Marie Tharp (1920- 2006) made transformative contributions to the sphere of Earth Science and the 12 months 2020 was celebrated because the centennial 12 months of Marie’s delivery.
Till the early twentieth century the oceans have been thought-about to be simply featureless swimming pools of water. Due to Marie’s highly effective maps we got the primary detailed visible of the ocean’s flooring wealthy topography. These maps confirmed that identical to the land mass these huge water our bodies have a posh structure and are made up of mountains, and valleys, and plains.
Marie was born in Ypsilanti, Michigan, the one little one of Bertha Louise Tharp (nee Newton) and William Edgar Tharp. Her mom was a schoolteacher, and father was a soil surveyor on the U.S. Division of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, whose job took him into totally different states throughout the nation. Younger Marie would usually accompany him in his soil amassing journeys, an exercise which may have kindled her curiosity in geology, though unbeknownst to her on the time.
“I guess I had map-making in my blood, though I hadn’t planned to follow in my father’s footsteps.”
Marie’s mother and father have been very supportive and inspiring, and gave her the liberty to decide on her personal course in life. Her mom, who Marie was very near, handed away when Marie was 15 years previous. Her father’s continuously transferring job meant that Marie had attended two dozen colleges by the point she graduated highschool, which additionally meant that she couldn’t have any lengthy lasting friendships. However she at all times remained near her household.
How a lady grew to become a Geologist (and never a trainer, a secretary or a nurse)
It was a time when girls have been solely anticipated to have a profession as a trainer, a secretary, or a nurse, and discouraged from having any additional aspirations. When Marie began school at Ohio College in 1939, she was uncertain about her profession, however acquired excited about science, and for the primary time in geology, by means of a course that she was taking. Throughout this time she additionally undertook a map-drafting undertaking that got here in useful later in life.
As destiny would have it, Marie’s life circled when Pearl Harbor was attacked in 1941 and younger males have been drafted to struggle in World Battle II, leading to a scarcity of male college students at universities. This led College of Michigan’s Geology division to ask girls candidates for a Grasp’s diploma, with a promised job within the petroleum business upon completion. Marie jumped on the chance, and later noticed that-
“I never would have gotten the chance to study geology if it hadn’t been for Pearl Harbor. Girls were needed to fill the jobs left open because the guys were off fighting.”
She began a job on the Stanolind Oil and Fuel Co. in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 1945 as a junior geologist after her M.Sc. Nevertheless, since girls weren’t allowed within the subject she was relegated to routine administrative work. In search of to do one thing extra intellectually difficult, she enrolled on the College of Tulsa for a level in Arithmetic. Nonetheless not glad and in search of one thing extra thrilling Marie moved to New York in 1948
Mapping Ocean Flooring- a Tharp-Heezen collaborative undertaking
Marie’s distinctive background in geology, arithmetic, and drafting, landed her on the Lamont Observatory at Columbia College (now referred to as the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory) in 1949. Regardless of her expertise and academic credentials she was employed to help different male graduate college students. She began aiding Bruce Heezen, a gifted graduate scholar, in mapping the ocean flooring that changed into a lifelong collaboration.
Being a lady Marie was not allowed to go on ships (since having girls onboard was thought-about an unwell omen), so Bruce went on explorations of the Atlantic Ocean, amassing echo sound recording information (a sort of sonar method) that measured the depth of the ocean. The readings have been despatched to Marie who had the arduous activity of reconstructing the reduction of the ocean flooring by means of cautious interpretation from reels of paper. She would first convert it into 2-dimensional maps, after which superimpose it with the longitude and latitude data of the area to finish a third-dimensional image.
By 1952 she was a grasp of her craft, and made a landmark discovery. From her calculations it appeared that there was a rift in center of the Mid-Atlantic ridge (the mountain vary operating in the course of the Atlantic ocean), which implies that the mountain peak had a valley like function. The rift had shaped on account of a crack within the earth’s mantle from the place molten materials was seeping out and solidifying to into new materials, and within the course of transferring the floor past. This was a transparent indicator of presence of transferring tectonic plates and proof for Continental Drift.
Bruce Heezen instantly dismissed the concept as ‘Girl Talk’. Not solely what Marie was suggesting was out of the realm of creativeness for the science group, however it was additionally proving the speculation of continental drift, an concept then shunned by American scientists. Avoiding being sacrilegious, Bruce rejected her conclusion. However Marie didn’t surrender. She went again to gather extra information, and added the data of earthquake epicenters to her map, which neatly coincided with the ridge, proving past doubt the existence of the ridge. Bruce ultimately circled, they usually printed the ends in 1957 in ‘The Floors of the Oceans: I. The North Atlantic’.
Scientists have been nonetheless skeptical concerning the ridge. Nevertheless additional proof got here from very surprising quarters! Jacques Cousteau, a French explorer and a skeptic of the speculation, needed to show Marie and Bruce improper and set out on an expedition to movie the rift valley. A video digital camera was held on his ship that went deep contained in the ocean and recorded visuals of the ocean flooring. He offered this information on the 1959 Worldwide Oceanographic Congress in New York. This was the conclusive proof. The scientific group conceded that certainly Marie’s maps have been correct.
Creating the primary World Ocean Flooring Map- a paradigm shifting analysis
Marie and Heezen’s discovery of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge offered proof for different main discoveries in geology, the Plate Tectonic Idea and Continental Drift. Their most exceptional innovation was utilizing a ‘physiographic method’ of map-making, which included a three-dimensional drawing to offer a greater visible of the house.
They continued their work, and found that the ridge may be discovered underneath the ocean across the globe, demarcating the earth’s tectonic plates. They printed a second map displaying the South Atlantic ocean flooring in 1961, adopted by the map of the Indian ocean flooring in 1964. By the 1970’s the presence of tectonic plates and continental drift have been accepted paradigms of earth science.
They collaborated with the Austrian painter and cartographer Heinrich Berann to create a world map depicting the ocean flooring. Heinrich was well-known, and created map work for Nationwide Geographic Society. The three lastly printed this map in 1977 titled ‘World Ocean Floor Panorama’.
Recognition and lasting legacy
Marie and Bruce made a formidable staff, who would get on one another’s nerves however then quickly put their good minds to work in making geological breakthrough. After Bruce handed away in 1977 on account of a sudden coronary heart assault whereas he was on a analysis cruise on a submarine, Marie didn’t proceed her work. She selected as an alternative to consolidate her and Bruce’s legacies, struggling to offer its due place in historical past and saving it from turning into only a geological reality embedded in textbooks.
Whereas not getting due credit score throughout her scientific profession, she gained recognition in a while receiving the Excellent Achievement Award from the Society of Girls Geographers in 1996, the Library of Congress’ Phillips Society honored her as one of many twentieth Century’s Excellent Cartographers in 1997, she was awarded the Girls Pioneer in Oceanography Award by the Woods Gap Oceanographic Establishment in 1999, the Lamont-Doherty Heritage Award in 2001. In 2004 Lamont Observatory created the Marie Tharp Visiting Fellowship Program for promising feminine researchers.
Marie’s distinctive talent of mixing scientific data with a inventive creativeness was instrumental in opening the eyes of the world to sights unseen and ideas unimagined. In that sense, what she created is really distinctive, groundbreaking, and greatest expressed by herself within the following words-
“Establishing the rift valley and the mid-ocean ridge that went all the way around the world for 40,000 miles — that was something important. You could only do that once. You can’t find anything bigger than that, at least on this planet.”
1920– Born in Ypsilanti, Michigan, to Bertha Louise Tharp and William Edgar Tharp
1939- 1943– Bachelor’s diploma from Ohio College in English and music
1943- 1945– Grasp’s in Geology from College of Michigan at Ann Arbor
1948– Graduated with a second Grasp’s diploma from Tulsa College, Oklahoma in arithmetic
1948– Married David Flanagan; they later divorced in 1952
1949– Joined the Lamont Geological Observatory (now the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia College)
1952– Marie discovers the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Rift Valley
1957– Map of North Atlantic Ocean printed by the Geological Society of America referred to as ‘The Floors of the Oceans: I. The North Atlantic’
1977– Tharp and Heezen publish the primary map of the ocean’s flooring, referred to as ‘World Ocean Floor Panorama’ painted by Heinrich Berann
1978– Awarded the Hubbard Medal by Nationwide Geographic Society
1997– Named one of many 4 biggest cartographers of the twentieth century by the Library of Congress.
2001– Awarded the primary Lamont-Doherty Heritage Award
2006– Handed away on August 23 on account of most cancers in Nyack, New York